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221. 10196 10196

222. 10197 10197 Hearing before the Subcommittee on Europe and the Middle East of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session. April 4; May 8; June 26; and July 17, 1990. Printed for the use of the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

223. 10198 10198 House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Europe and the Middle East, committee on Foreign Affairs, Washington, D.C. Tuesday, June 26, 1990

224. 10199 10199 A Brief Summary Presented to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Sub-Committee on Europe and the Middle East.

225. 102 102

226. 1020 1020

227. 10201 10201 An unpublished report, Washington, D.C.

228. 10202 10202 "Playing Chess with the Waters of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers" "This article was written to evaluate the last declaration (Damascus Declaration) of Syria and some other Arabic Countries about the usage of the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris. Author indicates that the accusations which are made by the Damascus Declaration are for ahead from the real situation. Turkey is the rational and reasonable user of the waters of these rivers."--Reference page

229. 10203 10203 "How Strong is Iran's Economy?"

230. 10204 10204 "Some Thoughts Concerning Characteristic Usage of the Euphrates' Waters by the GAP Project's Neighbors and Partners"

231. 10205 10205 "The impact of effluent from the Sitra power and desalination plant (SPDP), Bahrain, on the physical and chemical properties of the receiving water was investigated. Two distinguished zones of the receiving water were recognized. These zones resulted from the presence of the jetty. The length of the first zone is about the same as the jetty, 70 m. The length of the second zone extends to about 150 m. Seventy five case stations were selected on the receiving water. On the intake side, fifteen stations were considered as control stations. The SPDP effluent significantly changed the temperature and salinity of the receiving water of the first zone. The dissolved oxygen levels vary slightly from the control stations. The jetty was found to restrict the water circulation of the first zone. This restriction caused a delay in the temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen dispersion. Beyond the first zone, this restriction is removed and the dispersion process affected the control stations."--Title page

232. 10206 10206

233. 10207 10207 "Desalination techniques have usually been utilised in arid zone countries with high incomes arising mainly from oil production. Potable water provided to the public by desalination has to be heavily subsidised by the governments concerned. In reviewing the alternative water resources available in other arid and semi-arid zone countries when appraising water sectors for providing aid for development, it becomes increasingly evident that there will be a greater demand for desalination by the turn of the century. In fact, desalination has already imposed itself on some developing countries, in spite of its high capital cost and the subsequent subsidies required, since the only alternative may be to convey water for long distances, possibly from other countries. The paper reviews the cost of producing water in developing countries and points out that when it comes to providing water the price will be paid, however high it may be. Reducing the cost of desalinated water, however, is not only dependent on improving desalination technology, but also on improving the management of the conservation and utilisation of desalinated water. The paper therefore emphasises that when desalination is proposed it is important that it should be carried out in conjunction with improving the efficiency of the water supply system, re-using sewage effluent and substantially increasing storage capacity. Finally, the paper attempts to indicate areas where further research is required and to show the need for collaborative action by arid zone oil-producing countries in setting up an institutional framework that would enable their extensive experience with desalination to be shared, and permit the establishment of a body of expertise that could work towards reducing the present, often prohibitive, cost of desalination."--Title page

234. 10208 10208 "Industrialization of arid and semi arid zones is very essential for a developing country like India where population density is nearly 12 times that of USA. Comparison of economics of various alternatives such as desalination through Multi Stage Flash/Reverse Osmosis, long distance pipe line and tanker transport to meet water requirement for such industrialization is presented in this paper for the prevailing local conditions."--Title page

235. 10209 10209 "Water, re-entering a marine ecosystem after transit through a desalination plant, may be altered in three major ways. One, its thermal energy may be increased; two, its chemical make up may be altered; and three, its microbial biota may be modified. The effect of thermal enrichment on natural marine ecosystems varies with the change in temperature, the duration of the temperature change, and its geographical extent. If the desalination plant is sited in such a manner so as to allow rapid dissipation of the thermal input, the effect of the temperature change will be minimized. Signs of thermal effect on marine ecosystems could be manifested by changes in community structure (types of organisms), as well as the changes in features of individual species. The most obvious chemical changes in desalination effluents may include increase in salinity, a decrease in dissolved oxygen, an increase in dissolved organics, and an increase in pretreatment chemicals. As with thermal input, the effect of these chemical changes in the effluent on natural ecosystem will depend upon the rate of entrance and dispersion. As the rate of dispersion is increased, the effect of chemical changes on ecosystems is correspondingly decreased. Desalination plants, due to their design, provide surface areas for rapid microbial proliferation. Depending upon the sequence of chemical pretreatment, it is possible that these viable microbes will enter the ecosystem and supplement the existing biota, if conditions permit their continued growth. The environmental impact in several types of desalination plants (distillation and reverse osmosis) on natural marine ecosystems will be discussed. The problems imposed on the environment by these desalination plants will be presented and similarities to problems encountered in other types of condenser-heat exchanger systems (Power plants and ocean thermal energy converters) will be analyzed."--Title page

236. 1021 1021

237. 10210 10210

238. 10212 10212 The Peace Canal Project plan proposes a water pipeline originating in the elevated Ataturk Baraji lake in southeast Turkey, that would carry about one billion cubic meters of water to Syria, Jordan, Israel and the West Bank. The pipeline would also serve as a tank barrier between Syria and Israel on the Golan Heights, where it would become a 100 meter wide and 60 kilometer long open canal. On the South of the Golan the canal would split, and part of the water would fall to the Yarmuk River and the other part to the Sea of Galilee, thus also generating hydroelectric power that could be used to push the water to needy areas. The water from the project can be used on the way by Syria either in the Al-Assad lake or in the cities in the West of the Country. The Jordanians would be able to pull the water to their two sides of their water shed and may store the water behind the proposed Unity Dam on the Yarmuk. The Sea of Galilee could be stabilized and agreed upon amount would flow to the Jordan river, thus allowing for an independent access to the water by the Palestinians. The remaining amount would flow to the Dead Sea and slow the rapid evaporation trend of the lake. Israel's strategic need to remain on the Golan Heights would be reduced by the pipeline/canal, a factor which may allow for the demilitarization of the region and its ultimate return to Syrian civilian control. An additional strategic benafit of the project is that it reduces Israel's need to hold on to the West Bank as a water source, therefore expediting a compormise with the Palestinians. The strategic elements and the prospects for a long term reduction in the competition over water, as proposed in the plan, provide incentives for Middle Eastern parties to share water and an opening for a regional cooperation. Moreover, the interdependence created through a shared water source would promote future stability in the thirsty region with its growing population and decreased renewable water supplies."--Title page

239. 10213 10213

240. 10214 10214
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