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241. 10215 10215 "The authors examine and analyze comparatively the bases, nature, and workings of international Western and Islamic fresh water law and attempt to answer such questions as whether the two legal systems, one secular the other religious, can be sufficiently harmonized or integrated to enable effective, basin-wide management of such waterways as the Indus and the Nile Rivers where the two systems of law co-exist? Does Islamic law (sharia) have a direct, practical role to play in the management of international water basins in today's world? If precedence is given to the hydro-political dimensions of transnational river basin issues, is there an effective role for law in the processes of international river management? What are the implications of the fact that Muslim nations where Islamic law prevails are members of the UN and have signed UN conventions and treaties? The authors attempt to provide answers to these and other questions and to offer at least one way in which the two systems of law could possibly be made to work compatibly over fresh water issues."--Title page

242. 10216 10216 Revised Draft 2/23/03

243. 1022 1022

244. 10220 10220

245. 10221 10221 "Pressured by the U.N. imposed Iraqi embargo, Jordan also faces the worst water crisis in the Middle East. Water availability is estimated at [240] cubic meters per capita per year vis-a-vis the generally recognized 1,000 cubic meter poverty line. [To meet growing demand, ... are] overpumping groundwater aquifers causing adverse environmental impacts. Surface water resources are only 40% utilized, and further developmental is fraught with political and financial concerns. This paper places the water problems in Jordan and their socio-economic impacts in perspective. Future scenarios and recommended solutions are presented in an attempt to reconcile future water supply and demand imbalances. An integrated planning and management approach is proposed where optimal resource development opportunities can be identified to improve the overall well-being of the Nation. This approach could make significant contributions to the effectiveness and efficiency of the water resources systems in Jordan. The opinions expressed in this paper are strictly those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of any government or organization."--Abstract page Page 48 missing

246. 10222 10222 "The Jordan River system, shared by Jordan, Israel, the Palestinians in the occupied territories, Syria, and Lebanon, is a major issue in Middle East politics. This paper identifies the water resources of the system, outlines historical development plans, and presents the relevant legal riparian issues and practices related to the basin. The descriptive analysis concludes that the application of the Helsinki and ILC rules separately is not suitable to a region which is in conflict on every issue. To assist in addressing the problem based on recognized water rights and water sharing, mathematical tools need to be used as these tools may help to help solve the problem based on recognized water rights and sharing. The Multicriteria Decision Aid (MCDA) method of PROMETHEE was applied to rank the co-riparians. The results of relative ranking indicate that Jordan and the Palestinians in the occupied territories ranked high in this analysis (compared to Israel, Syria, and Lebanon). Sensitivity analysis was carried out to check the ranges of stability of the results and further analysis regarding possible allocations of future investments in the basin subjected to different constraints was demonstrated using the new version of PROMETHEE V."--Title page

247. 10223 10223 Submitted to The Middle East Water Crisis Creative Perspectives and Solutions - University of Waterloo, Canada May 7-9, 1992

248. 10224 10224 Submitted to The Middle East Water Crisis Creative Perspectives and Solutions - University of Waterloo, Canada May 7-9, 1992 "It has long been recognized that the use and control of the region's limited water resources are central issues in the Arab-Israeli dispute. While the populations and consumption levels of countries throughout the Middle East are steadily increasing, and, correspondingly, their water demands, the water resources available to most of these countries remain more or less the same, if not being reduced by abusive utilization or pollution. Due to the insufficiency of available supplies to meet all demands of all countries, the conflict over control of the area's water resources has been a permanent feature in the modern history of the region. Having just witnessed a disastrous war for oil, many now speculate that the region's next war will be fought over water. Accordingly, agreement on the use and distribution of the Middle East's vital and limited water would go far towards enhancing the achievement of stability in the area. Conversely, failure to reach consensus will almost certainly obstruct current efforts to attain this goal and could even lead to another Middle East war. It is unfortunate that although numerous attempts have been made to overcome the area's peculiar water conflict, none has so far succeeded. While considered, the reasons for the failures of previously proposed solutions are beyond the scope of this paper. This paper is an attempt to present a pragmatic, applicable and dispassionate formula for dealing with the problem of allocation. The formula is built around nature's apportionment of resources and an open international water market."--Title page

249. 10226 10226

250. 10227 10227

251. 10228 10228 "This article examines the hydropolitics of the Middle East, through a case study of the Litani River of Lebanon. The main thesis is that the desire to obtain additional water sources has been a primary influence on geostrategic interactions of Israel and its Arab neighbors. Israeli efforts to utilize the waters of the Litani help explain the establishment of the security zone in southern Lebanon. The apparent decision by Israel to retain access to the river makes it difficult for Lebanon to regain political stability and economic viability."--Title page

252. 10229 10229

253. 1023 1023

254. 10230 10230

255. 10231 10231 Section on Water Engineering

256. 10232 10232 "The Kufra and Sarir basins of Libya have huge ground-water resources. Three well fields -Sarir, Kufra, and Jalo- have been constructed for irrigation purposes. The Tazerbo and West Sarir well fields are under construction. Wells in these well fields have tapped only a small portion of the total ground water available. The hydrological behavior of the Sarir well field (determined by using analytical and numerical models) indicated a leaky artesian aquifer and a significant partial penetration effect. Long- and short-term pump tests did not provide true estimates of the values of transmissivity and the coefficient of storage. A steady-state model of the Kufra and Sarir basins indicated a minimum of 80 m3/s of underflow entering from Tibesti, Chad and Sudan. A transient model was constructed to pump a total of 120 m3/s from 14 well fields. The simulation indicated that sufficient drawdown was available to last at least 50 years."--Title page

257. 10235 10235 Great Man-made River (GMR)

258. 10236 10236

259. 10237 10237

260. 10238 10238
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