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Cabin, Camp Sherman Recreational Residences (Camp Sherman, Oregon)
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Object NameCabin, Camp Sherman Recreational Residences (Camp Sherman, Oregon)
ViewDocument: HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDING SURVEY. Cabin C-1, Tract C, Camp Sherman Recreational Residences, Deschutes National Forest. Prepared by Donald C. Zettel. 2010.
Related Work (Part Of)Camp Sherman Recreational Residences (Camp Sherman, Oregon)
Deschutes National Forest (Oregon)
Creator/RoleLuther Metke (builder/contractor, 1885-1985)
CreatorMetke, Luther
CountryUnited States
Photograph Date2009
CatalogerEdward H. Teague
Object Typearchitecture
built works
views (visual works)
exterior views
cabins (houses)
log cabins (houses)
architectural drawings (visual works)
plans (orthographic projections)
floor plans
Period/StyleRustic cabin
NotesHISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDING SURVEY Cabin C- 1, Tract C, Camp Sherman Recreational Residences, Deschutes National Forest HABS No. OR-Location: Section 15, Township 15 South, Range 9 East, Jefferson County, Oregon U. S. G. S Black Butte, Oregon 7.5' Quadrangle, Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinates: 100608286E, 4921543N, NAD 83 Present Owner: John Russell and Mary Fellows Present Occupants: Seasonal occupancy Present Uses: Vacation cabin Significance: Cabin C- 1 participates in two locally important historic contexts. These are the development of recreation facilities in the Deschutes National Forest and the log construction techniques of Luther Metke, acclaimed Central Oregon log builder. PART I. HISTORICAL INFORMATION A. Physical History 1. Date of Erection: Special Use permit files at the Sisters Ranger Station show that the permit for cabin C- 1, Tract C, Camp Sherman recreational residences, was issued in 1946. Construction began after that date, possibly extending for a few years until the cabin was complete. 2. Architect: The design for C- 1 was provided by the builder, Luther Metke. 3. Original and Subsequent Owners: Branford Millar, PhD, President of Portland State University was a former owner. Present owners are John Russell and Mary Fellows. 4. Builder: The builder was Luther Metke, locally known for his log construction. 5. Original plans (orthographic projections); floor plans and Construction: ( See 2 and 4 above) 2 6. Alterations or Additions: Cabin C- 1 has been repaired and maintained over its 60- odd years. Important modifications include replacement of the sill logs, re- framing and reconstruction of the roof after damage from a falling tree, and the addition of a concrete perimeter foundation. B. Historical Context Cabin C- 1 participates in two locally important historic contexts. These are the development of recreation facilities in the Deschutes National Forest and the log construction techniques of Luther Metke, Central Oregon log builder. The Forest Service and Outdoor Recreation During the last decades of the 19th century, Euro- Americans recognized Oregon's Cascade Range as an inspiring landscape and one well- suited to recreational pursuits. From Crater Lake at the south, to the Mt. Hood and the Columbia Gorge at the north, Oregon's Cascades drew enthusiastic visitors. On Klamath Lake, for example, New York railroad tycoon Edward Harriman maintained a summer lodge where he was host to writer John Muir. Oregon jurist and conservationist John B. Waldo spent summers in the southern Cascades, writing about the scenery in his journal and letters. At the northern end of Oregon's Cascades, the Columbia Gorge and Mt. Hood exerted a powerful magnetism to residents of Portland and the northern Willamette Valley. Hiking, camping, and European style mountaineering were attracting enthusiasts in the 1880s and 1890s. The Oregon Alpine Club was formed in Portland in 1887 ( Rakestraw and Rakestraw 1993: 8). Two years later, Oregon notables Ladd and C. E. S. Wood built the Cloud Cap Inn at 6000' on the flanks of Mt. Hood. Between 1909 and 1919, recreational visitors to what is now the Mt. Hood National Forest increased from 10,000 to 210,000 ( Waugh 1920). In 1893, President Grover Cleveland created the huge Cascade Range Forest Reserve, closing the Cascade Mountains to new homestead claims, and regulating grazing and logging. The Reserve contained 4,883,588 acres of alpine wilderness along the Cascade Crest. Congress established Crater Lake National Park in the southern end of the Reserve in 1902. Forest Reserves became National Forests after 1905, under the management of the USDA Forest Service. The new agency was led by Gifford Pinchot, who was interested in outdoor recreation, but probably did not see it as the central thrust of his new agency. He mentioned in his 1907 manual for the Forest Service— The Use of the National Forest— that " stores, hotels, and residences for recreation" belonged on the national forests because they contributed to " getting the fullest use out of the land and its resources" ( Pinchot 1907: 13). 3 Pinchot's successor as Chief Forester was Henry S. Graves, who was more concerned about forest recreation. He wrote in his 1913 Report of the Forester that recreation … is a highly important use of the Forests by the public, and it is recognized and facilitated by adjusting commercial use of the Forests, when necessary. Examples are the exclusion of stock and provisions in timber sales for very light cutting, or not cutting at all close to lakes and elsewhere where it is desirable to preserve the natural beauty of the location unmarred, for the enjoyment of the public. The most vociferous advocates of recreation on the forest reserves and the national forests, however, were the conservationists. They argued that the national forests should be used only for " inspiration and our own true recreation" and not for grazing, mining, timber, or any other commercial purpose. John Muir, John B. Waldo, and others reached a large audience with their writings, and these members of the recreation/ conservation movement influenced national policy. The newly- created Forest Service was caught between two powerful constituencies. The rural settlers and the lumber and grazing interests opposed the national forests because they saw the program as a threat to their resource base. The conservationists opposed any consumptive use of the forests. It is probably fair to say that forest recreation appealed to the leaders of the Forest Service for practical reasons as well as for its own merit. Recreation was a non- consumptive use that could bring urban Americans into the national forests and show them the benefits of Forest Service management. This could create a new constituency of supporters who could balance the rural people and the industrialists who opposed federal forest management. For urban Americans of moderate means, forest recreation was very appealing-- inexpensive, family oriented, and increasingly fashionable. In 1915, Congress passed legislation authorizing the Secretary of Agriculture to make land available on the national forests for recreational facilities including stores, resorts, and summer homes. The legislation specified that the permits were to be granted for a term not to exceed thirty years; consequently, the new law became popularly known as the Term Occupancy Act ( Tweed 1980: 3). 16 USC 497, March 4, 1915 The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized, under such regulations as he may make and upon such terms and conditions as he may deem proper, ( a) to permit the use and occupancy of suitable areas of land within the national forests, not exceeding eighty acres and for periods not exceeding thirty years, for the purpose of constructing or maintaining hotels, resorts, and any other structures or facilities necessary or desirable for recreation, public convenience, or safety; ( b) to permit the use and occupancy of suitable areas of land within the national forests, not 4 exceeding five acres and for periods not exceeding thirty years, for the purpose of constructing or maintaining summer homes and stores; ( c) to permit the use and occupancy of suitable areas of land within the national forest, not exceeding eighty acres and for periods not exceeding thirty years, for the purpose of constructing or maintaining buildings, structures, and facilities for industrial or commercial purposes whenever such use is related to or consistent with other uses on the national forests People had built private cabins and lodges at lakes and hot springs on the national forests before the Term Occupancy Act, but they had no guarantee that their annual permits would remain in effect for longer than the year they were issued. The new law guaranteed that the cabins, camps, and lodges would have tenure on the national forest lands for at least their thirty year term ( Lux et al 2003: 27). This encouraged more substantial investment. After the passage of the Term Occupancy Act, the Forest Service actively promoted recreational development by choosing locations for recreational facilities and surveying the permit lands. Persons or organizations wishing to erect private residences or summer camps, hotels, or other resorts could obtain permits for minimal fees, but the locations and lot sizes were established by the Forest Service. The Forest Service encouraged construction of cabins, resorts, and lodges on many scenic mountain lakes. Typically, facilities included a lodge and some guest cabins, a store, and private cabin tracts ( Throop 2005: 32). Outdoor recreation was increasingly popular throughout the U. S. In the year after the passage of the Term Occupancy Act— 1916— Congress created the National Park Service within the Department of the Interior to manage the parks that were growing in popularity and becoming national oases for recreation. During the 1920s and early 1930s, the Forest Service continued to promote recreation residences. With the onset of the Depression, and under the New Deal program, Forest recreation policy shifted its emphasis from recreation residences to campgrounds for the motoring public. Forest managers who had formerly promoted recreation residences were now building campgrounds, picnic areas, trails, roads, and other automobile- based facilities ( Lux et al 2003: 35). As the decade wound down, the Forest Service began to phase out the policy of term occupancy permits. Although tract development and permit issuances continued in the 1930s, there was a philosophical change in recreation management to developing public facilities ( Lux et al 2003: 35). At the same time, funding to support the thousands of Civilian Conservation Corp enrollees greatly expanded the Forest Service recreation program. Throughout Region 6, the Civilian Conservation Corps constructed roads, trails, picnic areas, campgrounds, as well as administrative facilities ( Atwood et al 2005: 32). 5 In 1939, Oregon's national forests had 966 active summer home permits in total, which was the high- water mark for the program. World War II interrupted construction on cabin tracts lands, and also interrupted summer excursions because of gasoline rationing. There was a resurgence of cabin building after the war; then, in 1966 the Forest Service stopped issuing special use permits for new cabins lots. Recreation on the Deschutes National Forest In the early 1910s, the Deschutes National Forest began a recreation program by issuing permits to resorts, establishing campgrounds, and issuing a few permits for recreational cabins. In 1913, the first Deschutes National Forest resort special use permit was issued to Fred Shintaffer for the East Lake Resort. Early permit- holders had no guarantee of their continued use of the lands. After 1915, the Term Occupancy Act guaranteed permit holders up to 30 years of occupancy. Resorts were operating under special use permit at Odell Lake, Elk Lake, Suttle Lake, and Camp Sherman by 1920. Additional resorts on the Deschutes National Forest were added at Crescent, Paulina, South Twin and Odell Lakes in the 1920s. A 1920s Forest Management Plan identified four major recreation areas on the Deschutes National Forest: Suttle Lake- Camp Sherman, present Cascades Lakes Highway area, Newberry Crater, and the Crescent- Odell complex. In 1916, the Deschutes issued the first permits for recreational cabins on the Metolius River. These were followed by permits for cabins at Elk Lake, Odell Lake, and Paulina Lake. The cabins at Camp Sherman, like other National Forest cabins, are privately owned structures built on parcels of National Forest land. Under the provisions of the 1915 Term Occupancy Act, lots are made available to cabin owners, whose tenure is renewable in periods of 10 to 20 years. The Forest Service conducted cabin lot surveys for the five tracts ( C, E, F, H, I, O) between 1922 and 1944 ( Tonsfeldt 2007). Lots identified in the five tracts total 108; all but one ( O- 14) are occupied. History of Camp Sherman The Head of the Metolius River, the five- mile long section extending from Metolius Springs to its confluence with Canyon Creek, was an important salmon fishing area for native groups. The original name of the river, " Mpto- ly- as" means " white fish" or " decaying fish" likely referred to fungus- covered salmon ( McArthur 1992: 448). Early Euro- American trappers and explorers probably visited the headwaters of the Metolius. Hudson's Bay Co. trappers, including Finan McDonald and Joseph Gervais, crossed the Cascades from the North Santiam River in 1825. The following year, Peter Skene Odgen traversed south of Sisters, passed Black Butte ( which Ogden called " McKay's Nole"), and then traveled by Suttle Lake before setting up camp. Ogden noted 6 in his journals, July 12, 1826: " We have now crossed the Mountains, and I have to observe that with little labour— a fine road … might be made…" ( Hatton 1996: 81). The earliest recorded visit to Metolius Valley was by members of an exploring party looking for a suitable route over the Cascades via Santiam Pass that would link the Willamette Valley to eastern Oregon. In 1859, Andrew Wiley, John Brandenburg, John Gray, and Harvey Wiley set out from Sweet Home seeking gold, adventure, and a route across the Cascades. In his letter to the Oregon Democrat, January 10, 1860, Gray describes the return trip and the Metolius Valley: We took a general course for Butte Lake, aiming to pass on the other side of the butte from the lake, but after descending a long slope westward we entered a most beautiful valley, and crossed a clear, quiet stream some one hundred feet wide and about eighteen or twenty inches deep. Here we camped. Some three hundred yards from camp we discovered two springs flowing from underneath the mountain, which furnished all the water of the pleasant little river flowing at our feet. ( Hatton 1996: 153- 154) Although they found no gold, they were among the first to praise the scenery of the Metolius and surrounding Cascades. We found no gold…. But … we found our trip the most healthful and invigorating to our bodies. We would therefore say to every invalid in Oregon, instead of converting your stomach to an apothecary shop, secure a pleasant companion or two, mount a good pony, and take to the mountains, scale their lofty heights; drink from their pure fountains, and breath the balmy air and you will return restored and strong. ( Oregon Democrat, January 10, 1860; cited in Hatton 1996: 82) The adventurers also reported that the route over Santiam Pass would make a good wagon road. As early as 1845, settlers in the Willamette Valley had sought a new route over Santiam Pass that would shorten the long route used by immigrants along the Columbia River. Settlers in the 1860s also wanted a road to grazing lands on the east side of the Cascades and gold seekers wanted a shorter route to the newly discovered gold fields of eastern Oregon. In 1864, the cattle ranchers organized the Willamette Valley and Cascade Mountain Wagon Road Company. The road was projected to extend from Linn County, over Santiam Pass, to eastern Oregon and was primarily designed to allow stock to reach the rich grazing lands east of the Cascades. Running out of money after constructing a short section to Deer Creek, they petitioned the federal government and in 1866 were granted land, three sections of land on both sides of the road for every mile finished, to finance the construction - ( Clark 1987). They were also given the right to charge toll. 7 The Oregonian, October 18, 1865, reported that the road was open for wagons as far as the Deschutes River. By 1868, the road was completed to the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. Nielsen ( 1985: 75) estimated that between 1865 and 1881, about 5000 wagons used the road. The Santiam Wagon Road also opened the Metolius Valley to settlers. One of the more famous was the David W. Allingham family who filed a homestead in the upper Metolius Valley in 1885. Cattle and horses were driven over the Cascades to the Allingham Ranch from the Willamette Valley. In 1890, he sold the ranch to a Mr. Alley, who reconveyed the title of the land to the federal government. The house that Allingham built in 1890 later became part of the Allingham Guard Station. In 1906, the Forest Service established a ranger station at the site, with Perry A. Smith as its first ranger ( Hatton 1996: 176- 177). By the early 1900s, the fishing and scenery of the Metolius Valley increasingly attracted visitors to the area. Before the Term Occupancy Act and the availability of national forest cabin sites, recreation enthusiasts bought private land in the Metolius Basin for summer cabins and rustic retreats. Stephen Dow Beckham points out that the Metolius appealed to some members of Oregon's intellectual and financial elite. Erskine S. Wood, J. A. Zehntbauer, Henry L. Corbett, and other Portland notables build summer places on the river ( Oetting 1992: 40). Another group, made up of wheat farmers from Sherman County also enjoyed the Metolius, arriving en masse each August after harvest. They were eager to escape the Sherman County summer temperatures, and perhaps the sight of endless wheat fields. This group called their summer rendezvous " Camp Sherman" and the name stuck ( Oetting 1992: 40; Heising 1957: 221). Recreation Residences In 1916, Martin Hansen, who had lived on a farm in Sherman County, built a summer cabin on the Metolius and initially used the meadow for sheep. As the Metolius became increasingly popular with recreationists, he went into the tourist business and established a primitive resort at Camp Sherman in 1921, initially using tent cabins on platforms. In 1924, he built better cabins, dammed up Lake Creek to create a swimming hole, and constructed a lodge with dining room. The resort was especially popular with residents of Sherman County ( Moore 1988: 11). In 1935, the resort was sold and a new lodge and cabins were built. This became the present Lake Creek Lodge ( Hatton 1996: 189- 191). Summer cabins have been part of the cultural landscape in Camp Sherman since 1916. After the Bend Bulletin featured a story on August 2, 1916 relating the government's offer to open many beauty spots for summer homes, the Deschutes National Forest received over 100 requests for information. Most of the inquiries came 8 from Oregon, but some came from as far away as Wyoming and Montana ( Hatton 1996: 178; Metolius Recreation Association n. d.). In 1916, encouraged by the numerous inquiries about permits for summer homes, W. G. Hastings of the Forest Service surveyed lots at East Lake, Paulina Lake, Odell Lake, Crescent Lake, and along the Metolius River. The lots were offered at between $ 5 and $ 15 for a year's permit. The only strict requirement was that the ( summer) " houses were not to be shacks . . . only substantial, neat houses would be erected." The maximum period of occupancy was not to exceed 30 years and the lands were to be used for summer homes, hotels, or stores. The improvements had to be constructed within a reasonable time and the buildings provided with the necessary sanitation ( Hatton 1996: 178; Metolius Recreation Association n. d.). In the Metolius area, one of the stipulations was that cabins had to be built at least 50 feet back from the edge of the river and that the river frontage was to be kept open for the public. Today, river trails in front of the cabins parallel the Metolius along both the west and east banks ( Hatton 1996: 178; Metolius Recreation Association n. d.). Access to the Metolius Reaching the Metolius River country in the early days was a challenge. An old wagon road connected with the Santiam Wagon Road near where U. S. 20 and the Camp Sherman Road intersect. The road from Sisters to Camp Sherman was rough and thick with dust. Weekly reports on this route from Grandview country were sent to The Madras Pioneer. For example, the June 22, 1916, issue reported: Lots of traffic through our part of the country to the Metolius River and mountains, at present. They are going by auto and covered wagons and it seems like the days of old have returned, for you see trains of pack mules heavily laden. In September 1927, the Metolius River Market Road was extended from Sisters to Jefferson County, and in 1928 the road was made part of the Santiam Highway. As early as 1926, construction on the Santiam Highway from Bend to Santiam Pass, now followed by Highway 20, was begun. Construction along the North Santiam was begun in 1931 and the highway was opened to traffic in 1938. This meant that Portland residents, using a route though Stayton and Detroit, had 56 fewer miles to drive to Suttle Lake and the Metolius resorts. Salem residents driving to Sisters drove 50 fewer miles than the McKenzie Pass route. The Bend Bulletin, August 26, 1933, commented as follows: Soon a modern highway, the Santiam, will be completed and Sisters will be on the shortest route between Bend and Portland. Over the mountains from the west will come an army of motorists and they will find the Sisters country, especially the Metolius Basin, one of the great playgrounds of the northwest. 9 Although the onset of the Great Depression slowed tourism during the 1930s, the era brought the construction of important roads and structures on the Deschutes National Forest through the work of the Civilian Conservation Corps ( CCC). In 1934, the CCC established Camp Sisters, near the headwaters of the Metolius at the location of present Riverside Campground. The enrollees built an 11- mile road to open up the Lower Metolius, constructed picnic and campground facilities along the upper Metolius, built trails along both sides of the river, and constructed the Suttle Lake- Camp Sherman road, as well as numerous other improvement projects. During its long period of occupation ( 1934- 1937), the camp served as a base for many projects elsewhere in the Deschutes National Forest ( Hatton 1996: 181- 183). During World War II, fishing and recreation on the Metolius slowed as elsewhere, but at the end of the war, recreational use of the outdoors increased dramatically. The improved roads and the fact that more people could afford automobiles made the Deschutes National Forest a draw for tourists. The Head of the Metolius has seen heavy recreation use since at least 1916, and present Forest Service management concerns are focused on protecting the old growth ponderosa pines that surround the summer cabins, management of riparian vegetation, maintaining water quality, and improving fish habitat. After 1966, when the Forest Service curtailed the recreational cabin lease program, attention has focused on environmental protection and developing multiple public uses. Today, the Metolius Basin is largely given over to recreational pursuits. Logging and grazing are curtailed, and destination resorts on the Metolius and nearby do a thriving business in the summer season. Cabins on Term Occupancy tracts are passed down from generation to generation, as Oregonians continue to enjoy this remote location. Luther Metke Luther Metke ( 1885- 1985), designer and builder of cabin C- 1, was a well-regarded contractor and log builder in Central Oregon from the 1910s through the 1980s. The oral tradition and the scanty documents available establish that he was active in Crook, Deschutes, and Jefferson counties mainly as a road contractor, surveyor, and cabin builder. Metke gave an interview to a Bend Bulletin reporter in 1975 which provides the most complete and credible source of information about his long and eventful life ( Bend Bulletin, Oct. 21, 1975: p. 19). He was at various times employed as trapper, contract logger, wildfire fighter, Forest Service crew foreman, Civilian Conservation Corps foreman ( or LEM), bridge builder, surveyor, and owner of the Camp Sherman Store. In 1910, he was Socialist Party candidate for Crook County Surveyor. He is reputed to have built log cabins in the Big Meadows area north of the confluence of the Deschutes and Little Deschutes rivers, Camp Sherman and the Metolius Basin, Elk Lake, and the Mink Lakes Basin. He is associated with road building in 10 Crook County east of Prineville and on the North Santiam highway west of Sisters, although he probably built roads in other areas as well. He was contractor or a sub-contractor on the Harper Bridge near Big Meadows, the highway bridge at Lower Bridge in northern Deschutes County, and the highway bridge over the Metolius River in Camp Sherman ( Bend Bulletin, Oct. 21, 1975: 19). His best- remembered bridge was the rustic log bridge over the Deschutes in Bend's Drake Park, completed in the fall of 1935 ( Bend Bulletin, Sept. 7, 1935: 1). In the late 1970s, Argentine film maker Jorge Preloran, from the UCLA film school, made a 16mm documentary film about Luther Metke entitled " Luther Metke at 94." Funding for the film came from the National Endowment for the Arts. Oregon film makers Steven Raymen and Ron Finne were involved in the production. " Luther Metke at 94" was nominated for an Academy Award after its release in 1980. The film received wide exposure during the 1980s and drew attention to Metke's traditional log building techniques. Extent of Metke's Work In the 1975 newspaper interview, Metke acknowledged that he had built " more than 30" log cabins. Many of these are in Camp Sherman on private land and within the Deschutes National Forest recreation residence tracts. Metke also built at least one cabin at Mink Lake in the Three Sisters Wilderness. The oral tradition credits him with construction of additional cabins on the Deschutes National Forest tracts at Elk Lake. Another attribution from the oral tradition is the Officers Club at Camp Abbot. It is certainly possible that Metke had a role in this project, but as yet it is not confirmed. In the 1975 Bend Bulletin interview Metke noted that he had " supervised youths in a federal forest program in the 1930s." This is almost certainly a reference to the Civilian Conservation Corps, and Metke's role as a " Locally Experienced Man" or LEM. Ordinary supervision of CCC enrollees was provided by the Forest Service, but the CCC hired local craftsmen to provide hands- on training and to supervise construction projects. If Metke was retained as a log builder, as seems likely, he would have had a significant influence on log construction throughout the region. The Deschutes National Forest had several CCC camps during the Depression. The longest- lived and largest ones were the Pringle Falls Camp near La Pine and the Sisters camp near Camp Sherman. CCC crews built many log structures during the program, including picnic shelters and kitchens, and the Skyliners Lodge, now on the National Register of Historic Places. Metke's Building Techniques None of the written sources explains Metke's building techniques. The information available comes for examination of cabins like C- 1, the construction photographed in the Preloran film, and testimony from Chuck Newport, a builder who observed Metke at work. According to most accounts, Metke learned log construction as a young man in Minnesota. He apparently designed the cabins himself. The extant 11 cabins identified as Metke's work show significant variety, however, and range from primitive to sophisticated. Although he was no doubt a traditional craftsman steeped in vernacular log building methods, Metke's practices were consistent with the best log building practices of his time. He learned as a young man, but there is no reason to believe that he would not have been influenced by books on construction and by observing others' work. Since he was involved with the CCC, he would have seen the Forest Service manual on log construction, which is George F. Nichols' Improvement Handbook ( 1937). This excellent book shows various log construction techniques and simple cabin designs. Metke did not work in a vacuum. His designs for cabins on Deschutes National Forest tracts were reviewed and approved by the Special Use Permit Administrators for the Sisters Ranger District ( Camp Sherman) or the Bend Ranger District ( Elk Lake). plans (orthographic projections); floor plans for cabins on private land were reviewed by the Deschutes County or Jefferson County planning departments ( Bend Bulletin, August 21, 1972: 2). Most designs were plain rectangular structures, often with a gabled entry. One significant exception was the cabin he built in Camp Sherman for his daughter, which featured a hexagonal footprint. Metke's favored material was tamarack or western larch ( Larix occidentalis) which is abundant in the Camp Sherman area, but seldom found further east in the Bend or Big Meadows areas. The alternative and more common material for cabin building is lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta). The advantages of tamarack are the straight grain and resistance to rot. The straight grain limits the amount of checking or cracking in the logs. Metke cut his logs green and removed the bark, probably after seasoning them over the winter to loosen the bark. He used hand tools to remove the bark, especially a barking spud, which is an edged tool similar to a slick but with a longer handle . Metke also cut tamarack into shake bolts. These three- foot sections of the logs were split ( probably with wedges) and then riven into shakes with a froe and club. The film shows him riving shakes in the traditional manner, driving the froe with a club and turning the bolt after each shake is removed. The straight grain of the tamarack makes it a good material for shakes. Incense cedar ( Calocedrus decurrens) is another tree useful for shakes which is abundant near Camp Sherman. The method of log joinery Metke used was the saddle- notch technique. This technique cuts a " saddle" in the upper logs at each corner so that they fit over the lower logs. The saddle is scribed on the upper log then cut in. The film shows Metke marking the saddle with a home- made scriber, then cutting the saddle with a chain saw making vertical cuts. The material between the vertical cuts was then chipped out with an axe or a chisel. The Improvement Handbook explains several different corner notching techniques, but endorses the saddle notch as the most solid joint and the one least subject to rot ( Nichols 1937: 182). Oral informant Chuck Newport confirmed that Metke used a similar scribing technique to the one shown in the Improvement Handbook. 12 The mating surfaces of the logs were prepared by flattening them with an axe. The film shows Metke using a double- bitted axe for this and he reportedly used a broad axe as well. Once the surfaces were hewn flat, he placed oakum on the lower surface in two rows to seal the joint. Chinking was done with mortar. The outside of the logs was finished with linseed oil. Once the perimeter walls were up, the rest of the cabin went together. Metke used poles for roof framing members, both rafters and purlins. Rafters were notched into the upper plate. The floor joists were also poles, flattened on top and notched into the sill log. If there was no perimeter foundation, as on cabin c- 1, the joists sat on the earth. Interior walls were pine paneling and the finish flooring was clear vertical grain fir. Roofs were sheathed with 1" milled lumber installed as skip sheathing, then roofed with shakes. The gable ends were also finished with shakes. Two techniques Metke used on cabin C- 1 were also illustrated in the Improvement Handbook. The first was using poles for the floor joists instead of milled lumber. The second was to use milled lumber to create 2" thick door and window " bucks" to separate the door and window frame from the logs. Nichols called these " false jambs" and discussed several ways to secure them to the logs so that settling or swelling would not distort the windows or doors. Of course, these techniques were not original with Nichols, and Metke may well have learned them in Minnesota. It is interesting to see the continuity of Metke's and Nichols' thinking, however. PART 11. ARCHITECTURAL INFORMATION A. General Statement 1. Architectural character: Cabin C- 1 is a simple vernacular structure with some modest attributes of the National Park Rustic style. It has a minimum of detailing and no embellishment. The National Park Rustic style was favored on National Forest recreation residence tracts, and specifically recommended in Forest Service policy for cabin owners. It was also common to the New Deal building programs during the 1930s that Metke worked in. Both the National Park Service and the Forest Service provided plan books to help agencies design structures in this idiom ( Tweet 1970: 46). 2. Condition of fabric: Cabin C- 1 has been maintained over the years with upgrades and repairs as appropriate. These include re- building the roof after a tree fell on the cabin, replacing rotted sill logs, and setting the cabin on a concrete perimeter foundation. All repairs and improvements were approved by the Forest Service. B. Description of Exterior 1. Overall dimensions: 36' x 29' 4" 13 2. Foundations: Concrete block, estimated 12" stemwall on footings 3. Walls: Exterior walls are log. 4. Structural system: Log construction with saddle notched corner joints. 5. Porches, stoops, balconies, bulkheads: Wood deck, 12' x 24' 6. chimneys (architectural elements): Central cobble chimney. 7. Openings: North elevation 3 double hung windows, 1 door West elevation: 2 double hung windows lower 2 sets casement windows upper South elevation: 1 double hung window, 1 door 2 fixed windows East elevation: 1 fixed window lower 1 double hung window lower 2 sets casement windows upper 8. Roof ( NB: this roof described is a replacement and may not reflect original design or materials) A. Shape: The roof is a simple gable, 5 in 12 pitch. The roofing material is composition. B Cornice, eaves: Eaves and gables extend over the perimeter walls 12". The raked rafter tails are exposed extending beyond the roofing. The gable ends are finished with 1" x 12" pine. C. Dormers, etc.: none C. Description of Interior 1. Floor Plan: The cabin has a living room, kitchen, and two bedrooms on the ground floor. The loft floor has two large rooms. 2. Stairway: central stairway 3. Flooring: Fir clear vertical grain side match flooring 1" x 4" 4. Wall and ceiling finish: Interior walls and ceiling are pine paneling. 5. Openings: See B. 7 above 14 6. Decorative Features and Trim: None 7. Hardware: None original 8. Mechanical equipment: a. Heating: The cabin is equipped with a woodstove. b. Electrical service: The cabin is provided with an electrical service. D. Site 1. General setting: The cabin is the southernmost of the cabins on Tract C. it has an excellent view of the Metolius River and a pasture. 2. Historic landscape design: None 3. Outbuildings: shed PART III. SOURCES OF INFORMATION A. Original Architectural Drawings: None available B. Early views: None C. Interviews ( 2009): Steven Raymen Eugene, Oregon Film maker Ted Eugenis Eugene, Oregon Photographer Ron Finne Seattle, Washington Film maker Chuck Newport Sisters, Oregon Builder Don Zettle Sisters, Oregon District Archaeologist Roger White Camp Sherman Owner, Camp Sherman Store 15 D. Bibliography of Sources Consulted: Publications Atwood, Kay, Sally Donovan, Dennis Gray, and Ward Tonsfeldt. 2005 Utility and Service Combined with Beauty: A Contextual and Architectural History of the USDA Forest Service Region 6: 1905- 1960. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service R- 6. Clark, Cleon L. 1985 " Deschutes National Forest History." In A History of Deschutes County in Oregon, pp. 33- 35. Bend, Oregon: Deschutes County Historical Society. 1987 History of the Willamette Valley and Cascade Mountain Wagon Road. Bend, Oregon: Deschutes County Historical Society. Cleator, F. W. 1932 Summer Homes in the National Forests of Oregon and Washington. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service, Region 6. Good, Albert 1935 Park Structures and Facilities. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. Hatton, Raymond R. 1996 Oregon's Sisters Country: A Portrait of its Lands, Waters, and People. Bend, Oregon: Maverick Publications. Heising, Harry 1957 " Grandview, Camp Sherman, and the Metolius River." In Jefferson County Reminiscences, pp. 217- 238. Portland, Oregon: Binfords & Mort. Lux, Linda, Judy Rose, Dana Supernowicz, Mike McIntyre, Pam Conners, Jon Brady, Jan Cutts, Joan Brandoff- Kerr, and Steve McNeil 2003 Strategy for Inventory and Historic Evaluation of Recreation residence Tracts in the National Forests of California from 1906 to 1959. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service R- 6. McArthur, Lewis L. 1992 Oregon Geographic Names. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society. 16 McIntyre, Norman, and Berit Svanqvist 2004 " Living in the Forest: Meaning and Use of Recreational Residences." Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 2. ( http:// www. metla. fi/ julkaisut/ workingpapers/ 2004/ mwp002. htm). Metke, Luther. 2002 " Roadbuilding, Pancake Batter, and No Accounts" in Desert Sage Memories, Judy Osgood, ed., Bend, OR Metolius Recreation Association n. d. " Summer Homes on the Metolius." Camp Sherman, Oregon. ( www. metoliousriver. com/ summercabin. html). Moore, Patty 1988 " Camp Sherman." For the Record. Moro, Oregon: Sherman County Historical Society. Nichols, George L. 1937 Improvement Handbook. Washington DC: USDA Forest Service, Nielsen, Lawrence E. 1985 Pioneer Roads in Oregon. Bend, Oregon: Maverick Publications, Inc. Oetting, Albert C., Stephen Dow Beckham, and Jill A. Chappel 1992 A Cultural Resource Overview and Sample Survey for the Metolius Wild and Scenic Area, Central Oregon. Eugene, Oregon: Heritage Research Associates, Inc. Throop, E. Gail. 1975 " Utterly Visionary and Chimerical: A Federal Response to the Depression." MA Thesis, Portland State University. 2004 " Recreation Development in the National Forests of Oregon and Washington" Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service Region 6. 2005 " Summer Homes in the National Forests: Recreation Residences and the National Preservation Act of 1966, as Amended." Paper presented at the National Forest Homeowners National Convention. Santa Ana, California. Tonsfeldt, Ward 2007 Preliminary Results of the Deschutes National Forest Recreation Cabin Survey. Bend, Oregon: USDA Deschutes National Forest. 17 Tweet, William C., Laura E. Soulliere, and Henry G. Law 1970 National Park Service Rustic Architecture: 1916- 1942. San Francisco: National Park Service. Tweed, William C. 1980 Recreation Site Planning and Improvement in National Forests 1891- 1942. Washington, D. C.: USDA Forest Service. USDA Forest Service 2005 History of the Deschutes N. F. Deschutes & Ochoco National Forests. Retrieved from http:// www. fs. fed. us/ r6/ centraloregon/ about/ history- des. Waldo, John Breckenridge. 1986 Diaries and Letters from the High Cascades of Oregon 1880- 1907. Introduction and Summary by Gerald W. Williams. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Umpqua National Forest, Roseburg, Oregon. Waugh, Frank A. 1918 Landscape Engineering in the National Forests. USDA, Forest Service. Washington D. C.: Government Printing Office. Newspapers Bend Bulletin Sept. 7, 1935 p. 1 Sept. 21, 1944 p. 6 August 21, 1972 p. 2 Oct. 21, 19735 p. 19 Eugene Register- Guard August 9, 1982 p. D1 Portland Oregonian May 6, 1980 C1 18 Appendix A Location Map Location map from USGS 7.5' Quad Black Butte Oregon SE 1/ 4 section 15 Township 13 South, Range 9 East, Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinates: 100608286E, 4921543N, NAD 83 19 Appendix B Section 106 NHPA Determination of National Register Eligibility * County: Jefferson * Street Address: Cabin C- 1 * City: Camp Sherman USGS Quad Name: Black Butte GPS Reading, UTM Format ( Universal Transverse Mercator): 100608286E 4921543N Township: 13 S Range: 9 E Section: 15 Block/ Lot: C- 1 Tax Lot #: Historic Name: * Date of Construction: 1946 Other Name: Grouping or Cluster Name: Camp Sherman Tract: C Historic Use or Function: Recreational Cabin * Current Use: Recreational Cabin Associated Archaeological Site: Architectural Classification( s): Rustic Cabin Plan Type/ Shape: Rectangle Number of Stories: 1.5 Foundation Material: Block Structural Framing: Log Moved? No Roof Type/ Material: Gable Composition Window Type/ Material: Wood Sash Double hung 3/ 1, Casement 3/ 1, Fixed 4/ 2 Exterior Surface Materials Primary: Log Secondary: 1 X Panel, Vertical Decorative: Exterior Alterations or Additions, Approximate Date: Deck Number and Type of Associated Resources: Shed Integrity: Good Condition: Good Local Ranking: National Register Listed? Yes No Unknown Preliminary National Register Findings: Potentially Eligible: Individually or Not Eligible: Intact but lacks distinction or As a contributing resource in a District Not 50 years old or Altered – Choose one: Reversible/ potentially eligible individually or in a District Reversible/ ineligible, lacks distinction Irretrievable lack of integrity Description of Physical and / or Landscape Features: Lawn Statement of Significance: [ Required only for Intensive Level Surveys] ( Use additional sheets if necessary) Researcher / Organization: East Slope Cultural Services Date Recorded: August 2007 SHPO #: 20 USGS Map Metolius River/ Camp Sherman recreational cabin Tract C 1- 29 USGS Black Butte Quad, T. 12 S., R. 9 E., section 15 21 Appendix C plans (orthographic projections); floor plans 22 23 24 Appendix D Photos Photo 1 Setting, looking south from south side of cabin Photo 2 East elevation 25 Photo 3 West elevation Photo 4 North elevation 26 Photo 5 South elevation Photo 6 Shed 27 Photo 7 Casement windows, east elevation Photo 8 Fixed window, east elevation 28 Photo 9 Detail, corner joints 29 Photo 10 Detail, entry door 30 Photo 11 Interior, living room Photo 12 Interior, hearth 31 Photo 13 Interior, loft Photo 14 Luther Metke, 1983 Photo copyright 2000, Theodore Eugenis, used with permission 32 Photo 15 Luther Metke, 1983 Photo copyright 2000, Theodore Eugenis, used with permission Photo 16 Luther Metke cabin, Metke Lane, Camp Sherman 1983 Photo copyright 2000, Theodore Eugenis, used with permission
Creator NotesLuther Metke (1885-1985), designer and builder of cabin C-1, was a wellregarded contractor and log builder in Central Oregon from the 1910s through the 1980s. The oral tradition and the scanty documents available establish that he was active in Crook, Deschutes, and Jefferson counties mainly as a road contractor, surveyor, and cabin builder. Metke gave an interview to a Bend Bulletin reporter in 1975 which provides the most complete and credible source of information about his long and eventful life (Bend Bulletin, Oct. 21, 1975: p. 19). He was at various times employed as trapper, contract logger, wildfire fighter, Forest Service crew foreman, Civilian Conservation Corps foreman (or LEM), bridge builder, surveyor, and owner of the Camp Sherman Store. Source quoted: This document.
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